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Hình-Ảnh Quân-Lực Việt-Nam Cộng-Hòa

History Of Viet Nam

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Ngàn Năm Thăng Long (1010 - 2010)

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Nguyên-Tử Của Việt-Nam Và Quốc- Tế

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Tưởng-Niệm 50 Năm Anh-Hùng Ngô-Đình-Diệm, Anh-Hùng Ngô-Đình-Nhu Vị-Quốc Vong-Thân 1963-2013:

Tưởng-Niệm 50 Năm Hòa-Thượng Thích-Quảng-Đức Tự-Thiêu 1963-2013:

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History Of Viet Nam

The Equilibrium Of Vietnamese Culture

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6


"She is going far away
Not because of love
She only uses her beauty
To bring back the two provinces Ô, Lý (now Huế)
How painful it is . . .
As she is in full youth,
Is it because of her unhappy predestination?
Snow white skin and rose cheeks
Are now just like dying flower and fading moon
Gold is mixed with lead.
What a sad farewell song
When the bird fly away
What a talented lady.
But now that she is married
Like a sun flower
She has to follow King Mân
(Her husband, the Chàm King)
They keep telling her
What she should do
For the good of the people
Balance her sentiment and reason
Even if it aches her heart".

The sacrifice of Huyền-Trân was painful to her, but it marked the assimilation of Việt-Nam and Chàm culture, a wonderful harmonization from which the culture of Hoán-châu was born. Two hundred years later, after the unification achieved by Emperor Gia-Long, this land became the capital of the whole country.

The leadership ideology of Trần dynasty (1225- 1400), adapted itself to the infra-structure of traditional society. In fact the economico-political organisation of this society before French intervention consisted of two opposing and superimposed systems. At the background was a popular autonomous and representative democracy, based on the families relationship considered as social cells. An old proverb said "familial inside, communal outside".

At the top and above autonomous villages was the absolute monarchy which was highly centralised. The two institutions fundamentally different in tendencies, the former was an open society, the later a closed, both coexisted through the up and down of our national history. That could be so thank to the third mandarin system which was consisted of well educated in the right way of national ideology. They had to keep the balance between the two others opposing powers so that the Nation could be safe. In the case of conflict, "the Kings laws had submit to the commune customs", as prescribed an old proverb.

It was due to that system of village self democracy which maintained the stability of Vietnamese agricultural society. Recently a French governor had stated:

"The commune shows an particular interesting mechanism, and one know easily that such an organisation so complex, so democratic, where never notable can behave by himself, which exists traditionally since earliest times. That mechanism has not to be touched without making the country in disorder. The instrument is old, it is good, and it suits the people".

(La commune présente un mécanisme particulièrement intéressant, et on comprend sans peine qu'une organisation si complexe, si démocratique, où jamais un notable ne peut agir seul, qui existe traditionnellement depuis la plus haute antiquité, ne doit pas être touchée sous peine de dé organiser le pays. "L'instrument est vieux, il est bon, il convient au people"). _( Pierre Pasquier " L'Annam d'Autrefois " Essai sur la constitution de l'Annam avant l'intervention française -- Paris, Société d'Editions, 1939 )

That commune system in every village was represented by the Đình or Temple where all members of the village meeting in festival days, where the notables holding meeting to discuss on the commune affairs, and also there the tutelary god of the village was worshipped. This cult constituted the official religion of the villages, beside the Buddhism, the Confucianism and Taoism. Thus the Shintoism in each village plays the role of conciliating different religions.

Thank to the efficiency of that organisation where the material and spiritual life was actually and practically unified, the Vietnamese people in a relatively short time successes to assimilate the people Chàm and Khmer in the present South Việt-Nam.

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

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